Monday, April 30, 2012

extra $10,784 per year


Drama Amid Indonesia's Disappearing Mangroves

The rising tide laps at the feet of local children and fishermen and submerges all but the tops of the mangrove trees of Tiwoho village in Indonesia's North Sulawesi province. At one degree of latitude north of the equator, the climate here is about the same all year round: hot, wet and perfect for the forests of salt-tolerant trees that grow along sheltered coastlines.
Indonesia has one-quarter of the world's mangrove forests, but it's losing them at an alarming rate of 6 percent a year. The world as a whole is estimated to have lost half of its mangroves in the past half-century.
The flooded forests help protect coastlines from tidal floods and erosion, provide a home to an important variety of biodiversity, and provide important absorption of the world's carbon dioxide.
Replanting, Re-Educating
But for the villagers, the mangroves have meant something else. The villagers used to cut down the trees for firewood, timber and to make shrimp ponds. But two decades ago, farmer Kamal Amani and other villagers began to replant them.
"Looking at the mangroves now, I am very pleased," he says, surveying the expanse of vegetation from a hilltop. "I am proud of what we have achieved for future generations. And we're very proud of Professor Jamaluddin."
Rignolda Jamaluddin, a marine scientist at a local university, has devoted himself to rebuilding North Sulawesi's mangroves, one village at a time.
He says he has tried to explain to the residents how the mangroves serve as a breeding ground for the tuna and grouper that teem in the local waters, protect the shoreline from tsunamis, and provide an abundance of useful materials that can be gathered without harming the forest.
"We can take benefits from the mangrove by not cutting the trees," Jamaluddin says. "For example, we make alcohol, we make sugar from mangrove trees." Villagers have also learned to make and sell bamboo furniture and develop ecotourism.
The mangrove forest also protects a neighboring ecosystem: the coral reefs, which are a favorite with divers. The mangroves help to filter and capture river sediment that would otherwise bury the reefs.
Role In Carbon Capture
Jamaluddin walks over the sandy soil and into the thick underbrush of the mangrove forest. At first glance, all seems silent and deserted. But look and listen closely, and you'll find a microcosm of constant change, cycles of life and death, growth and decay.
Some mangrove roots poke upward through the soil to breathe, like an ocean full of snorkels. Other mangroves grip the mud with a lattice of roots, like the flying buttresses of a cluster of gothic cathedrals. All of them have adapted to their environment by developing filtration systems to survive in saltwater that would kill other trees.
There's a constant snapping and popping sound in the forest, which Jamaluddin says is the sound of crabs snapping their pincers and mollusks shutting their shells. Those animals are not just tasty links in the local food chain; they're also helping to compost fallen leaves and organic matter, turning them into an underground layer of carbon-rich peat.
Mangroves are a "very efficient living system in terms of sequestering carbon dioxide," says Daniel Murdiyarso, a climate change expert at the Center for International Forestry Research in Bogor, Indonesia. The carbon dioxide, he continues, is "stored in the leaves, and the leaves will be consumed by the feeders, including crabs and all those microorganisms below the ground."
Murdiyarso says mangroves store five to eight times more carbon underground than above ground. The more mature the mangrove forest, the deeper underground its peat layer extends.
Mangroves account for less than 1 percent of the world's tropical forest area, Murdiyarso says, but their destruction produces 10 percent of all carbon emissions from deforestation. Deforestation, meanwhile, is the second-largest source of carbon emissions after the burning of fossil fuels.
Jin Eong Ong, of the Mangrove Action Project and a professor at the Universiti Sains Malaysia, estimates that Indonesia's mangroves absorb and store enough carbon dioxide to offset the annual emissions of 5 million cars, roughly equivalent to all the registered vehicles in Massachusetts.
Best Strategy May Be The Local One
There's no doubt that Indonesia's mangroves provide many valuable services: storing carbon, filtering water and nourishing wildlife. The question is: How much are the services worth, and how can paying for them help protect the mangroves?
In Jakarta, Forestry Ministry official Eko Warsito frames the problem this way: "More than 50 percent of Indonesia's population lives in coastal areas, and most of them are poor. An ordinary plot of mangroves is worth $84 an acre. But if it's cleared and planted with oil palms, it can be worth more than $20,000 an acre."
Warsito says some developed countries, including Spain and the Netherlands, have already begun paying Indonesia to plant mangroves. In exchange, they get carbon credits that they can trade or use as a permit to emit carbon.
The city of Jakarta is buying mangrove seeds from the Forestry Ministry and planting them in Jakarta Bay, Warsito notes. Restoring the mangroves, city officials hope, will stop saltwater from seeping inland and contaminating the city's water supplies.
And, he adds, Indonesia is set to issue a presidential decree outlining a strategy for the sustainable management of its mangroves.
Then again, in Tiwoho, the villagers have restored mangroves without government policies or foreign investment. The fact that the village is in Bunaken National Park doesn't seem to have helped the mangroves much.
Jamaluddin argues that government management is less effective at protecting mangroves than community-based education.
"If the local people have their own strategy, their own knowledge and the ecosystem already functioning naturally, then we don't need the regulation, like the national park," he says. "So just let them manage the resources in their own way."
This is not just the most cost-effective way to protect the mangroves, Jamaluddin says; more importantly, it's nature's way.

lil chris

Inphamus Dia


available on amazon

Friday, April 27, 2012

new obama campaign video

tule tree

In 2005, its trunk had a circumference of 36.2 m (119 ft), equating to a diameter of 11.62 m (38.1 ft), a slight increase from a measurement of 11.42 m (37.5 ft) m in 1982. However, the trunk is heavily buttressed, giving a higher diameter reading than the true cross-sectional of the trunk represents; when this is taken into account, the diameter of the 'smoothed out' trunk is 9.38 m (30.8 ft). This is still slightly larger than the next most stout tree known, a Giant Sequoia with a 8.98 m (29.5 ft) diameter.

how much does your state drink?

advertisement vs actual

presidents tax return

Chart o’ the day: All The Presidents’ Tax Returns. (Since 1929.)


Everyone has loved or hated (or been) a cheerleader. But before cheerleaders were the cutest girls on campus, they were the cutest guys on campus — and they didn’t shake pom-poms or leap into human pyramids.
In the late 19th century, American football was fairly new — a particularly militaristic and organized adaptation of rugby. As college leagues developed, they attracted riotous young spectators eager for a break from the academic grind. Colleges and high schools were experiencing a major growth spurt because of urbanization and land-grant legislation. As audiences grew bigger, the lone guy rising in the stands to try to start the wave or a cheer couldn’t quite get the job done.
Instead, lone cheerleaders — often called yell leaders or rooter kings — were appointed to take to the field and pep up the crowd, control booing and hammer the school fight song into everyone’s heads. Since almost all students at all schools were men, and since the job of yell leader seemed to demand a charismatic but also martial presence, cheerleaders were men. One of the first was the University of Minnesota’s Johnny Campbell, who first cheered the Golden Gophers in 1898. Universities across the country — from the Ivy League to new state schools in the American South and West — followed suit, as did high schools nationwide.
Read more.


edible panties

teen birthrates

U.S. Teen Birthrates Are Down, But Still High in the Bible Belt
Teen birthrates are highest in Texas, Oklahoma, Mississippi, Arkansas, and New Mexico, with slightly lower concentrations in the neighboring states of Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia, and Arizona. New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut, and Massachusetts have the lowest rates of teen births.
What factors lie behind this geographic pattern? […]
Teenage births remain high in more religious states. The correlation between teenage birthrates and the percentage of adults who say they are “very religious” is considerable (.69). The 2009 study posited that attitudes toward contraception play a significant role, noting that “religious communities in the U.S. are more successful in discouraging the use of contraception among their teenagers than they are in discouraging sexual intercourse itself.”
Teen birthrates also hew closely to America’s political divide. They are substantially higher in conservative states that voted for McCain in 2008 (with a correlation of .65) and negatively correlated with states that voted for Obama (-.62).
Class plays a substantial role as well. Teen births are negatively associated with average state income (-.62), the share of the workforce in knowledge, professional, and creative class jobs (-.61), and especially with the share of adults who are college graduates (-.76). Conversely, teen birthrates are higher in more working class states (with a positive correlation of .58).
Read more at The Atlantic Cities. [Image: Centers for Disease Control]

romney/obama by state

Solid/Lean EVs: 284,  172, Toss-up 82

right wingoverse

wanna have fun

Wednesday, April 25, 2012

Tuesday, April 24, 2012

if you are...

you keep using that word


everything you can imagine is real

i don't need religion

simple style

real conversation hearts

outside inside

tattooed pin up

yum, how nice he looks

i dont need anyone

and i want my scalps

teach me how to dougie

2 flowers


This is a hard disk drive back in 1956... With 5 MB of storage.
In September 1956 IBM launched the 305 RAMAC, the first 'SUPER' computer with a hard disk drive (HDD). The HDD weighed over a ton and stored a 'whopping' 5 MB of data.


1 in 100 people lose baggage.  
Here is a report by Société Internationale de Télécommunications Aéronautiques', better known as SITA.

30 million pieces of airline luggage, approximately 1%, will go astray this year.

SITA who monitor baggage in over 200 countries, said virtually all missing bags would be returned to their owners within an average of 31 hours.  However about 200,000  pieces (less than 1%) would never be found because they are lost or even stolen.

Francesco Violante, managing director of SITA said the air transport industry spent about $2.5 billion a year tracking and returning luggage.  Part of this figure went on compensating passengers for lost items.  More bags are going missing due to airport congestion, short transition times, and switches from one airline to another.

What are needed is better systems which can link bags to their owners.

SITA concluded that the number one cause of late-arriving bags was mishandling when luggage is transferred between flights. This accounted for 60% of hold-ups in 2005.

Secondly was failure to load bags at the departure point, this made up 15% of delays. Attaching the incorrect destination tags at check-in accounted for just 3 percent.

Tuesday, April 10, 2012

basic foram video

hours needed to afford rent

cadbury eggs

lakes and oceans

angular momentum

what the president does


santorum on paternity tests

"[I]n order for Mom to be able to go on welfare if she has a child out of wedlock, you have to tell us who the father is… If you don’t tell us who the father is, you’re not eligible for any welfare benefits, none, not even medical care. You tell us who the father is or you don’t receive benefits…We say to Mom that you tell us the wrong name, and we’ll bring that guy in and we’ll do a blood test and that’s not Dad, you lose your welfare benefits."
Rick Santorum, 1994, advocating paternity tests for every single mother on welfare.

Sunday, April 8, 2012

map of antarctica

asian mosque art


Zoe, born 9-16-98 on the Island of Molokai and is extremely rare.
Her unusual color is due to her having "amelanosis". She is not an albino. She has striking gold stripes and blue eyes. In horses, there is a similar condition called "Lethal White Foal Syndrome" which is associated with the occurrence of other serious birth defects. Although this color variation occasionally occurs in wild herds, the animals would likely survive only a few days at best. This is probably because zebras use their stripes as camouflage to blend in with the rest of herd. This then allows the herd, to confuse predators with the changing patterns formed by the movement of a large group. Animals that stand out from the herd are easy targets for predators. In nature, having a color variation that makes you stand out is not a good thing!
There have been reports of at least two other "white" zebras in captivity. One in Germany about a hundred years ago and another at a zoo in Tokyo in the 1970's.

butterfly skull

a dangerous method

Wednesday, April 4, 2012


It's an octopus that oozed up to the Ogden Point breakwater in Victoria, BC, reached up silently with it's suckered arms, and dragged a seagull down to a watery doom, and a tasty fowl dinner. If you were eating nothing but crab every day you might want to try something different too.